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Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects

Год выпуска: 2014
Автор: Norbert Lechner

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments

Sustainable environmental control through building design

Heating, Cooling, and Lighting is the industry standard text on environmental control systems with the emphasis on sustainable design. By detailing the many factors that contribute to the comfort in a building, this book helps architects minimize mechanical systems and energy usage over the life of the building by siting, building design, and landscaping to maximize natural heating, cooling, and lighting. This new fourth edition includes new information on integrated design strategies and designing for the Tropics. Resources include helpful case studies, checklists, diagrams, and a companion website featuring additional cases, an image bank, and instructor materials.

Designing buildings that require less energy to heat, cool, and light means allowing the natural energy of the sun and wind to reduce the burden on the mechanical and electrical systems. Basic design decisions regarding size, orientation, and form have a great impact on the sustainability, cost, and comfort of a building. Heating, Cooling, and Lighting provides detailed guidance for each phase of a design project. Readers will:

  • Understand the concept of sustainability as applied to energy sources
  • Review the basic principles of thermal comfort, and the critical role of climate
  • Learn the fundamentals of solar responsive design, including active and passive solar systems as well as photovoltaics
  • Discover how siting, architectural design, and landscaping can reduce the requirements for mechanical and electrical systems

In sustainable design, mechanical, and electrical systems should be used to only accomplish what the architect could not by the design of the building itself. With this in mind, designers require a comprehensive understanding of both the properties of energy and the human factors involved in thermal comfort. Heating, Cooling, and Lighting is the complete, industry-leading resource for designers interested in sustainable environmental control.


One of the leadingreferences on the design of a building's environmental controls has just gotten better.

For years, Heating, Cooling, Lighting has supplied architects and students with the strategies needed for initial design decisions for building systems. The book looks at how to design the form of the building itself to take advantage of natural heating, cooling, and lighting and how to best utilize active mechanical equipment to satisfy the needs not provided by nature. This new edition has been expanded and updated to reflect the latest practices for low energy building design, and information on integrating technical strategies at the schematic design stage.

Reflecting the latest developments, codes, standards, and rating systems for energy efficiency, thisFourth Edition provides detailed information concerning thermal comfort, mechanical heating and cooling systems, climate, passive heating and cooling, shading, site planning, daylight and artificial lighting, and conservation.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Heating, Cooling, and Lighting as Form-Givers in Architecture

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Indigenous and Vernacular Architecture

1.3 Formal Architecture

1.4 The Architectural Approach to Sustainable Design

1.5 Dynamic Versus Static Buildings

1.6 Resilient Design

1.7 Biophilic Design

1.8 Color and Ornamentation

1.9 Energy and Architecture

1.10 Climate and Architecture

1.11 Sustainability Codes and Voluntary Programs

1.12 Integrated Design

1.13 Decision Making

1.14 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 1


Further Reading



Chapter 2 Sustainable Design and Energy Sources

2.1 Easter Island: Learning from the Past

2.2 Sustainable Design

2.3 Reuse, Recycle, and Regenerate by Design

2.4 The Sustainability Movement

2.5 Population and Affluence

2.6 Growth

2.7 Exponential Growth

2.8 The Amoeba Analogy*

2.9 Supply Versus Efficiency

2.10 Sustainable-Design Issues

2.11 Climate Change

2.12 The Global Greenhouse

2.13 The Ozone Hole

2.14 Efficiency versus Renewable Energy

2.15 Energy Sources

2.16 Ancient Greece: A Historical Example

2.17 Nonrenewable Energy Sources

2.18 Renewable Energy Sources

2.19 Hydrogen

2.20 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 2

Chapter 3 Basic Principles

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Heat

3.3 Sensible Heat

3.4 Latent Heat

3.5 Evaporative Cooling

3.6 Convection

3.7 Transport

3.8 Energy-Transfer Mediums

3.9 Radiation

3.10 Greenhouse Effect

3.11 Equilibrium Temperature of a Surface

3.12 Mean Radiant Temperature

3.13 Heat Flow

3.14 Heat Sink

3.15 Heat Capacity

3.16 Thermal Resistance

3.17 Heat-Flow Coefficient

3.18 Time Lag

3.19 Insulating Effect of Mass

3.20 Energy Conversion

3.21 Combined Heat and Power

3.22 Fuel Cells

3.23 Embodied Energy

3.24 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 3

Chapter 4 Thermal Comfort

4.1 Biological Machine

4.2 Thermal Barriers

4.3 Metabolic Rate

4.4 Thermal Conditions of the Environment

4.5 The Psychrometric Chart

4.6 Dew Point and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

4.7 Heat Content of Air

4.8 Thermal Comfort

4.9 Shifting of the Comfort Zone

4.10 Adaptive Comfort

4.11 Clothing and Comfort

4.12 Strategies

4.13 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 4


Further Reading


Chapter 5 Climate

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Climate

5.3 Microclimate

5.4 Climatic Anomalies

5.5 Climate Regions of the United States and Canada

5.6 Explanations of the Climatic Data Tables

5.7 Relative Heating and Cooling Loads

5.8 Additional Climate Information

5.9 Climate Information for Other Countries

5.9 Design Strategies

Key Ideas of Chapter 5


Further Reading

Web ResourcesUnited States

Web ResourcesWorld

Chapter 6 Solar Geometry

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Sun

6.3 Elliptical Orbit

6.4 Tilt of the Earths Axis

6.5 Consequences of the Altitude Angle

6.6 Winter

6.7 The Sun Revolves Around The Earth!

6.8 Sky Dome

6.9 Determining Altitude and Azimuth Angles

6.10 Solar Time

6.11 Horizontal Sun-Path Diagrams

6.12 Vertical Sun-Path Diagrams

6.13 Drawing Sunbeams

6.14 Sun-Path Models

6.15 Solar Heat Gain

6.16 Solar Site-EvaluationS Tools

6.17 Heliodons

6.18 Sundials For Model Testing

6.19 Conceptually Clear Heliodons

6.20 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 6



Further Reading


Chapter 7 Passive Solar

7.1 History

7.2 Solar In America

7.3 Solar Hemicycle

7.4 Latest Rediscovery of Passive Solar

7.5 Passive Solar

7.6 Direct-Gain Systems

7.7 Design Guidelines for Direct-Gain Systems

7.8 Example

7.9 Trombe Wall Systems

7.10 Design Guidelines for Trombe Wall Systems

7.11 Example

7.12 Sunspaces

7.13 Balcomb House

7.14 Sunspace Design Guidelines

7.16 General Considerations For Passive Solar Systems

7.17 Heat-Storage Materials

7.18 Other Passive Heating Systems

7.19 Maximizing Passive Solar

7.20 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 7


Further Reading



Chapter 8 Photovoltaics And Active Solar

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Almost Ideal Energy Source

8.3 History of PV

8.4 The PV Cell

8.5 Types of PV Systems

8.6 Balance of System Equipment

8.7 Building-Integrated Photovoltaics

8.8 Orientation and Tilt

8.9 Roofs Clad with PV

8.10 Facades Clad with PV

8.11 Glazing and PV

8.12 PV Shading Devices

8.13 PV: Part of the Second Tier

8.14 Sizing a PV System

8.15 Finding The PV Array Size for a Stand-Alone Building by the Short Calculation Method

8.16 Design Guidelines

8.17 The Promise of PV

8.18 The Cost Effectiveness of PV and Active Solar Applications

8.19 Active Solar Swimming-Pool Heating

8.20 Solar Hot-Water Systems

8.21 Solar Hot-Air Collectors

8.22 Designing an Active Solar System

8.23 Active/Passive Solar Systems

8.24 Preheating of Ventilation Air

8.25 The Future of Active Solar

8.26 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 8



Chapter 9 Shading and Light Colors

9.1 History of Shading

9.2 Shading

9.3 Fixed Exterior shading devices

9.4 Movable Shading Devices

9.5 Shading Periods of the Year

9.6 Overhangs

9.7 Design of Horizontal OverhangsBasic Method

9.8 Shading Design for South Windows

9.9 Design Guidelines for Fixed South Overhangs

9.10 Design Guidelines for Movable South Overhangs

9.11 Shading for East and West Windows

9.12 Design of East and West Horizontal Overhangs

9.13 Design of Fins on North Windows

9.14 Design Guidelines for Eggcrate Shading Devices

9.15 Special Shading Strategies

9.16 Shading Outdoor Spaces

9.17 Using Physical Models for Shading Design

9.18 Glazing as the Shading Element

9.19 Interior Shading Devices

9.20 Solar Heat-Gain Coefficient

9.21 Roof and Wall Reflectivity

9.22 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 9



Further Reading

Sources of Shading Devices

Chapter 10 Passive Cooling

10.1 Introduction to Cooling

10.2 Historical and Indigenous use of Passive Cooling

10.3 Passive Cooling Systems

10.4 Comfort Ventilation Versus Night-Flush Cooling

10.5 Basic Principles of Air Flow

10.6 Air Flow Through Buildings

10.7 Example of Ventilation Design

10.8 Comfort Ventilation

10.9 Night-Flush Cooling

10.10 Double-Skin Facades and Operable Roofs

10.11 Radiant Cooling

10.12 Evaporative Cooling

10.13 Cool Towers

10.14 Earth Cooling

10.15 Dehumidification with a Desiccant

10.16 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 10


Further Reading


Chapter 11 Site Design, Community Planning, and Landscaping

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Site Selection

11.3 Solar Access

11.4 Shadow Patterns

11.5 Site Planning

11.6 Solar zoning

11.7 Physical Models

11.8 Wind and Site Design

11.9 Plants and Vegetation

11.10 Vegetated Roofs

11.11 Lawns

11.12 Landscaping

11.13 Community Design

11.14 Cooling Our Communities

11.15 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 11



Further Reading


Chapter 12 Lighting

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Light

12.3 Reflectance/Transmittance

12.4 Color

12.5 Vision

12.6 Perception

12.7 Performance of a Visual Task

12.8 Characteristics of the Visual Task

12.9 Illumination Level

12.10 Brightness Ratios

12.11 Glare

12.12 Equivalent Spherical Illumination

12.13 Activity Needs

12.14 Biological Needs

12.15 Light and Health

12.16 The Poetry of Light

12.17 Rules for Lighting Design

12.18 Career Possibilities

12.19 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 12



Further Reading


Chapter 13 Daylighting

13.1 History of Daylighting

13.2 Why Daylighting?

13.3 The Nature of Daylight

13.4 Conceptual Model*

13.5 Illumination and The Daylight Factor

13.6 Light Without Heat?

13.7 Cool Daylight

13.8 Goals of Daylighting

13.9 Basic Daylighting Strategies

13.10 Basic Window Strategies

13.11 Advanced Window Strategies

13.12 Window Glazing Materials

13.13 Top Lighting

13.14 Skylight Strategies

13.15 Clerestories, Monitors, and Light Scoops

13.16 Special Daylighting Techniques

13.17 Translucent Walls and Roofs

13.18 Electric Lighting as a Supplement to Daylighting

13.19 Physical Modeling

13.20 Guidelines for Daylighting

13.21 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 13



Further Reading


Chapter 14 Electric Lighting

14.1 History of Light Sources

14.2 Light Sources

14.3 Incandescent and Halogen Lamps

14.4 Discharge Lamps

14.5 Fluorescent Lamps

14.6 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (Mercury, Metal Halide, and High Pressure Sodium)

14.7 Solid State Lighting

14.8 Comparison of the Major Lighting Sources

14.9 Luminaires

14.10 Lenses, Diffusers, and Baffles

14.11 Lighting Systems

14.12 Remote-Source Lighting Systems

14.13 Visualizing Light Distribution

14.14 Architectural Lighting

14.15 Outdoor Lighting

14.16 Emergency Lighting

14.17 Controls

14.18 Maintenance

14.19 Rules for Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting Design

14.20 Laws and Standards

14.21 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 14


Further Reading


CHAPTER 15 The Thermal Envelope: Keeping Warm and Staying Cool

15.1 Background

15.2 Heat Loss

15.3 Heat Gain

15.4 Solar Reflectivity (Albedo)

15.5 Compactness, Exposed Area, and Thermal Planning

15.6 Insulation Materials

15.7 The Thermal Envelope

15.8 Heat Bridges

15.9 Windows

15.10 Movable Insulation

15.11 Insulating Effect From Thermal Mass

15.12 Earth Sheltering

15.13 Infiltration and Ventilation

15.14 Moisture Control

15.15 Radon

15.16 Appliances

15.17 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 15



Further Reading


Web Based Sources

Chapter 16 Mechanical Equipment for Heating and Cooling

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Heating

16.3 Thermal Zones

16.4 Heating Systems

16.5 Electric Heating

16.6 Hot-Water (Hydronic) Heating

16.7 Hot-Air Systems

16.8 Cooling

16.9 Refrigeration Cycles

16.10 Heat Pumps

16.11 Geo-Exchange

16.12 Cooling Systems

16.13 Air Conditioning for Small Buildings

16.14 Air Conditioning for Large Multistory Buildings

16.15 Design Guidelines for Mechanical Systems

16.16 Air Supply (Ducts and Diffusers)

16.17 Ventilation

16.18 Energy-Efficient Ventilation Systems

16.19 Air Filtration and Odor Removal

16.20 Special Systems

16.21 Integrated and Exposed Mechanical Equipment

16.22 Low Energy Heating and Cool ing

Sidebox 16.22

16.23 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 16


Further Reading


Chapter 17 Tropical Architecture

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Traditional Tropical Architecture

17.3 The Tropical Climate

17.4 The Solar Geometry of the Tropics

17.5 Shading in Tropical Climates

17.6 Daylighting in the Tropics

17.7 Passive Cooling

17.8 Air Conditioned Buildings in the Tropics

17.9 Conclusion

Key Ideas of Chapter 17

Further Reading

Chapter 18 Recommended Low Energy Case Studies

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Case Studies

Chapter 19 Checklist for Designing Integrated Sustainable Buildings

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Site Selection

19.3 Form

19.4 Plan

19.5 Windows

19.6 Daylighting

19.7 Shading

19.8 Color

19.9 Thermal Envelope

19.10 Thermal Mass

19.11 Glazing

19.12 Air Barrier

19.13 Passive Systems

19.14 Electric Lighting

19.15 Mechanical Equipment

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